Driver, filter, operating system, frequency, waveform, boot, word processing, web editor--whether you are studying computers or simply using them, you need to know these words.
The BCS Glossary of Computing and ICT (BCS Learning and Development, Ltd., 2013) provides definitions for all these, and more (3400 terms altogether), arranging them by topic. Look for the section, how computers work, and you'll find all the relevant words together. Illustrations and synonyms are provided when relevant.
The BCS Glossary is just one of the hundreds of online reference works available through out subscription to Credo Reference; computer science is only one of the areas covered.